Archives For automation

The enigmatic face of HAL

The problem of people

The Hal effect, named after the eponymous anti-hero of Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke’s film 2001, is the tendency for designers to implicitly embed their cultural biases into automation. While such biases are undoubtedly a very uncertain guide it might also be worthwhile to look at the 2001 Odyssey mission from Hal’s perspective for a moment. Continue Reading…

Another A320 crash

25/03/2015 — 4 Comments

Germanwings crash (Image source: AFP)

The Germanwings A320 crash

At this stage there’s not more that can be said about the particulars of this tragedy that has claimed a 150 lives in a mountainous corner of France. Disturbingly again we have an A320 aircraft descending rapidly and apparently out of control, without the crew having any time to issue a distress call. Yet more disturbing is the though that the crash might be due to the crew failing to carry out the workaround for two blocked AoA probes promulgated in this Emergency Airworthiness Directive (EAD) that was issued in December of last year. And, as the final and rather unpleasant icing on this particular cake, there is the followup question as to whether the problem covered by the directive might also have been a causal factor in the AirAsia flight 8501 crash. That, if it be the case, would be very, very nasty indeed.

Unfortunately at this stage the answer to all of the above questions is that no one knows the answer, especially as the Indonesian investigators have declined to issue any further information on the causes of the Air Asia crash. However what we can be sure of is that given the highly dependable nature of aircraft systems the answer when it comes will comprise an apparently unlikely combinations of events, actions and circumstance, because that is the nature of accidents that occur in high dependability systems. One thing that’s also for sure, there’ll be little sleep in Toulouse until the FDRs are recovered, and maybe not much after that….

Postscript

if having read the EAD your’e left wondering why it directed that two ADR’s be turned off it’s simply that by doing so you push the aircraft out of what’s called Normal law, where Alpha protection is trying to drive the nose down, into Alternate law, where the (erroneous) Alpha protection is removed. Of course in order to do so you need to be able to recognise, diagnose and apply the correct action, which also generally requires training.

Recent work in complexity and robustness theory for engineered systems has highlighted that the architecture with which these systems are designed inherently leads to ‘robust yet fragile’ behavior. This vulnerability has strong implications for the human operator when he or she is expected to intervene in response to the failure of system.

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The effective use by humans of any transport system is a critical success factor in the development of such systems. Careful consideration of the interaction of ergonomic and functional design with the physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations of crew, passengers and maintainers is essential to assure safe, effective and profitable rail operations.

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So far as we know flight AF 447 fell out of the sky with its systems performing as their designers had specified, if not how they expected, right up-to the point that it impacted the surface of the ocean.

So how is it possible that incorrect air data could simultaneously cause upsets in aircraft functions as disparate as engine thrust management, flight law protection and traffic avoidance?

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Ariane 501 Launch

I was cleaning up some of my reference material and came across a copy of the ESA board of investigation report into the Ariane 501 accident. I’ve added my own personal observations, as well as those of other commentators, to the report. Continue Reading…

Recent incidents involving Airbus aircraft have again focused attention on their approach to cockpit automation and it’s interaction with the crew.

Underlying the current debate is perhaps a general view that the automation should somehow be ‘perfect’, and that failure of automation is also a form of moral failing (1). While this weltanschauung undoubtedly serves certain social and psychological needs the debate it engenders doesn’t really further productive discussion on what could or indeed should be done to improve cockpit automation. So let’s take a closer look at the Airbus protection laws implemented in the flight control automation and compare it with how experienced aircrew actually make decisions in the cockpit.

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