Archives For Decision making

Taboo transactions and the safety dilemma Again my thanks goes to Ross Anderson over on the Light Blue Touchpaper blog for the reference, this time to a paper by Alan Fiske  an anthropologist and Philip Tetlock a social psychologist, on what they terms taboo transactions. What they point out is that there are domains of sharing in society which each work on different rules; communal, versus reciprocal obligations for example, or authority versus market. And within each domain we socially ‘transact’ trade-offs between equivalent social goods.

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I’ve just finished up the working week with a day long Safety Conversations and Observations course conducted by Dr Robert Long of Human Dymensions. A good, actually very good, course with an excellent balance between the theory of risk psychology and the practicalities of successfully carrying out safety conversations. I’d recommend it to any organisation that’s seeking to take their safety culture beyond systems and paperwork. Although he’s not a great fan of engineers. 🙂

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An interesting theory of risk perception and communication is put forward by Kahan (2012) in the context of climate risk.

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I think it was John Norman who pointed out that accidents in complex automated systems often arise because of unintended interactions between operator and automation where both are trying to control the same system.

Now Johns comment is an insightful one, but the follow on question is, logically, how are automation and operator trying to control the system?

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Fighter Cockpit Rear View Mirror

What the economic theory of sunk costs tells us about plan continuation bias

Plan continuation bias is a recognised and subtle cognitive bias that tends to force the continuation of an existing plan or course of action even in the face of changing conditions. In the field of aerospace it has been recognised as a significant causal factor in accidents, with a 2004 NASA study finding that in 9 out of the 19 accidents studied aircrew exhibited this behavioural bias. One explanation of this behaviour may be a version of the well known ‘sunk cost‘ economic heuristic.

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In a previous post I discussed that in HOT systems the operator will inherently be asked to intervene in situations that are unplanned for by the designer. As such situations are inherently not ‘handled’ by the system this has strong implications for the design of the human machine interface.

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Often times we make decisions as part of a group and in the environment of the group there is a strong possibility that the cohesiveness of the group leads members to minimise interpersonal conflict and reach a consensus at the expense of crticially evaluating and testing ideas.

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