Here’s a companion tutorial to the one on integrity level partitioning. This addresses more general software hazards and how to deal with them. Again you can find a more permanent link on my publications page. Enjoy 🙂
Archives For Fault tolerance
Unreliable airspeed events pose a significant challenge (and safety risk) because such situations throw onto aircrew the most difficult (and error prone) of human cognitive tasks, that of ‘understanding’ a novel situation. This results in a double whammy for unreliable airspeed incidents. That is the likelihood of an error in ‘understanding’ is far greater than any other error type, and having made that sort of error it’s highly likely that it’s going to be a fatal one. Continue Reading…
This post is part of the Airbus aircraft family and system safety thread.
While there’s often a lot of discussion about short term response of aircraft to control inputs, in practice it’s often the long term response of the aircraft state vector at constant thrust and neutral control inputs that’s just as important to flight control system designers. In the case of Airbus the selection by the designers of a modified C* feedback loop (1) for primary pitch axis control law (Airbus 1998) in flight has led to what you’d call interesting consequences. Continue Reading…
And not quite as simple as you think…
The testimony of Michael Barr, in the recent Oklahoma Toyota court case highlighted problems with the design of Toyota’s watchdog timer for their Camry ETCS-i throttle control system, amongst other things, which got me thinking about the pervasive role that watchdogs play in safety critical systems. The great strength of watchdogs is of course that they provide a safety mechanism which resides outside the state machine, which gives them fundamental design independence from what’s going on inside. By their nature they’re also simple and small scale beasts, thereby satisfying the economy of mechanism principle.
Economy of mechanism and fail safe defaults
I’ve just finished reading the testimony of Phil Koopman and Michael Barr given for the Toyota un-commanded acceleration lawsuit. Toyota settled after they were found guilty of acting with reckless disregard, but before the jury came back with their decision on punitive damages, and I’m not surprised.
Or ‘On the breakdown of Bayesian techniques in the presence of knowledge singularities’
One of the abiding problems of safety critical ‘first of’ systems is that you face, as David Collingridge observed, a double bind dilemma:
- Initially an information problem because ‘real’ safety issues (hazards) and their risk cannot be easily identified or quantified until the system is deployed, but
- By the time the system is deployed you now face a power (inertia) problem, that is control or change is difficult once the system is deployed or delivered. Eliminating a hazard is usually very difficult and we can only mitigate them in some fashion. Continue Reading…
In 1996 the European Space Agency lost their brand new Ariane 5 launcher on it’s first flight. Here’s a recently updated annotated version of that report. I’d also note that the software that faulted was written using Ada a ‘strongly typed’ language, which does point to a few small problems with the use of such languages.