In an earlier post I commented that in the QF72 incident the use of a geometric mean (1) instead of the arithmetic mean when calculating the aircrafts angle of attack would have reduced the severity of the subsequent pitch over. Which leads into the more general subject of what to do when the real world departs from our assumption about the statistical ‘well formededness’ of data. The problem, in the case of measuring angle of attack on commercial aircraft, is that the left and right alpha sensors are not truly independent measures of the same parameter (2). With sideslip we cannot directly obtain a true angle of attack (AoA) from any single sensor (3) so need to take the average (mean) of the measured AoA on either side of the fuselage (Gracey 1958) to determine the true AoA. Because of this variance between left and right we cannot use a median voting approach, as we can expect the two sensors the right side to differ from the one sensor on the left. As a result we end up having to use the mean of two sensor values (one from each side) as an estimate of the resultant central tendency.